Don't be afraid of CCD
and other video cameras (II)
the time of the electronic integration, small webcams at a few hundreds
euros and digital astronomy cameras have seduced a lot of advanced amateurs yet used to
work with devices of another quality. Why such a passion ?
to pioneers, the webcam
was invented in 1993 in England, at the Cambridge University Computer Science department.
In 1994, Jeff Schwartz and Dan Wong then students at San Francisco State University (SFU)
did the same discovery and developed the "fogcam".
The first commercial webcam was sold in 1994, it was the QuickCam
manufactured by the company Connectix which products were bought in 1998
left, a black and white Supercircuits
PC164C CCD video camera sensitive to 0.0003 lux ! It costs the
same price as a webcam, a bit more expensive than the Logitech
Quickcam VC webcam
displayed at right.
Pros and cons
of all, webcams are cheap and display a wide choice of definitions ranging between
0.76 kpixels (320x240 pixels) and more than 50 Mpixels, so as much as the last generation
of DSLR. They support images in VGA or full HD format and video formats AVI, some WMN or MOV.
Their price increases with their performances but remains very low (20-80 €).
to record between 5 and 60 fps depending on the definition and their performances,
individual images can display a very good quality, an excellent color balance,
contrast, clearness and a sharp image on models like Philips ToUcam or la Logitech Pro 9000.
In view of their low profile and lightness it is also very easy to fix
them at the eyepiece of a scope using a simple adapter
or to build oneself an adapter with second-hand parts, as explain French-speaking
fans on Astrocam
However, technically speaking the sensitivity of the CCD chip drops quite
rapidly in blue light but offer a good efficiency up to the near infrared.
benefit of a low price, a light weight and are simple to use, they require a
direct connexion by USB to a computer on the observation site.
camera i.Nova PLA MX 310kp
webcams and classic still CCD cameras, some manufacturers (ImagingSource, i.Nova,
Lumenera, ZWO, etc) provide high
definition CCD or CMOS cameras able to record images of 2.8 Mpixels at 53 fps
to Lumenera, and in best cases images of 6.4 Mpixels at 164 fps or 239.8 fps at
low definition (320x240 pixels) for ZWO cameras. They also use a high speed link to the computer and are more
flexible and performing than most traditional models due to their new technology.
(300-1500 €) and a bit heavier (400 g in average for cooled models) than webcams, some show
a low profile and are not more cumbersome and even sometimes smaller than
classic CCD cameras. They can be thus be fixed on small quality scopes from
60 to 130 mm in diameter fixed on stable and sturdy mounts (these scopes
belong usually to mid- and high-end categories).
addition to their excellent image quality in monochrome or color, these astronomy cameras are equipped with an USB 2.0
or 3.0 port, Firewire (IEEE1394) or Gigabit Ethernet (GigE). The high-rate
connexion is required due to the high definition and size of image files,
too large and thus too slow to be transfered via a standard serial link that would ask hours to download
hundred or thousand images of several megabytes each.
last, these cameras of new generation support most image formats RAW, BMP,
JPEG, PNG, FITS and TIFF as well as video formats AVI and SER.
DSLRs and compact cameras with video capabilities
HD camcorders, DSLRs and compact cameras with video capabilities are
autonomous, versatiles, relatively light (200-800 g) and mid-end like
high-end models are not more expensive than a CCD astronomy cameras at
30 fps but do not include all their functionalities (except DSLRs the lens
cannot be removed, they are not cooled, have no built-on guide chip,
no binning mode nor anti-blooming among other functions).
general, these systems support the AVCHD video format (MPEG-4 Internet and sometimes MOV
while digicams (compacts) usually support AVCHD Lite and Motion JPEG (M-JPEG)
in low resolution.
times are generally ranging between 1/10000th
to 60 minutes for an ImagingSource camera, from 1/8000th
to Bulb for a DSLR and from 1/2000th
to 1/2 of sec for camcorders. Usually this range is never used at full
because the Moon for example supports exposures times between 1/500th
of sec. However, for planets we can go up to 1/10th
of sec or less.
the termal noise, it can not be noticeable on camcorders or videos
recorded with compact or DSLR cameras at the speed of 30 fps, the maximum
exposure time of most models, as the brain integrates successive
images rendering the grainy effect much less obvious.
systems give excellent results if there is enough light and if we know
their limits. In this regard, in planetary imaging, the exposure time is
often intantaneous and thermal noise, even if it is low on some models,
does not always permit to get images of quality (see examples in links
For deep sky imaging, conditions worsen because the exposure time can exceed several
minutes to reveal all the extent or structure of the object. The noise becomes so
visible that the substraction of a dark frame and other bias are practically mandatory as
we will explain further.
these conditions, it is preferable to give up camescopes and DSLRs that are
in any case not suited for deep-sky astrophotogaphy.
The ideal is to use a CCD or CMOS camera dedicated to astrophotography as those
described previoulsy, some models being particularly complete, compact, able
to picture in trichromy or to record directly color images.
and size of video recordings
technical reasons, due to the file size and the low transfer rate between
the camera and the computer (few cameras have a Firewire interface at 50 or 100 MB/s),
the recording is usually made at rates between 5-10 fps, rate limiting the
size of files to some tens of megabytes. Indeed one must known that for a
definition of 640x480 pixels and 24-bit depth per frame, each image is 0.92 MB.
Recording a 10 seconds AVI film at 10 fps (thus a 100 frames film) will request a space disk
of 92 MB. Avoid also using a too high image compression what should lose image quality
and prevent any later optimization. All these parameters and many others (focus, gain,
luminosity, etc) can be set up via the software driving the camera.
DSLR and compacts with video capabilities, it is a bit simpler and settings
are usually limited to the selection of the format and definition, the
other settings being set automatically (white balance, sensitivity, etc.)
last, if you work with an analog camera, you can digitize the film using a video digitizer or "frame
among other manufacturers provides various performing interfaces (1750$ for Matrox
Radient eCL). Now your film can be read by any good video processing software
(e.g. Adobe Lightroom, After Effect) and you can apply to it the entire range
of image-enhancement techniques to improve its quality and even convert it in other formats.