M27 Nebulosa Dumbell

This PN appears to be shaped like an prolate spheroid and is viewed from our perspective along the plane of its equator. In 1992, Moreno-Corral et al. computed that the rate of expansion in the plane of the sky of this PN was no more than 2″.3 per century. From this, an upper limit to the age of 14,600 yr may be determined. In 1970, Bohuski, Smith, and Weedman found an expansion velocity of 31 km/s. Given its semi-minor axis radius of 1.01 ly, this implies that the kinematic age of the nebula is some 9,800 years.[4][5]
Like many nearby planetary nebulae, the Dumbbell contains knots. Its central region is marked by a pattern of dark and bright cusped knots and their associated dark tails (see picture). The knots vary in appearance from symmetric objects with tails to rather irregular tail-less objects. Similarly to the Helix Nebula and the Eskimo Nebula, the heads of the knots have bright cusps which are local photoionization fronts.
Central star
The central star, a white dwarf, is estimated to have a radius which is 0.055 ± 0.02 R which gives it a size larger than any other known white dwarf.[2] The central star mass was estimated in 1999 by Napiwotzki to be 0.56 ± 0.01 M.[2]

M27 The Dumbell Planetary Nebula
 Nazaret Observatory, Lanzarote, Canary islands,  Spain
Date: Julo 28, 2009
Camera: SBIG ST8-XME  @ -10ºC
Telescope: SW ED 80mm.@  f/ 6, LX 200 CLASSIC 8" mount
Filters: Baader  7nm H alpha
Exposure: 25 minutes, 1 min subs (H alpha data)
Processing Software: Maxim DL, Photoshop, Pixinsight
M27 The